By James K. Hoffmeier
Pharaoh Akhenaten, who reigned for seventeen years within the fourteenth century B.C.E, is likely one of the such a lot interesting rulers of historic Egypt. His bizarre visual appeal and his preoccupation with worshiping the solar disc Aten have inspired educational dialogue and controversy for greater than a century. regardless of the varied books and articles approximately this enigmatic determine, many questions on Akhenaten and the Atenism faith stay unanswered.
In Akhenaten and the Origins of Monotheism, James ok. Hoffmeier argues that Akhenaten was once now not, as is usually stated, an intensive advocating a brand new faith yet fairly a primitivist: that's, one that reaches again to a golden age and emulates it. Akhenaten's proposal was once the previous country (2650-2400 B.C.E.), whilst the sun-god Re/Atum governed because the unmatched head of the Egyptian pantheon. Hoffmeier unearths that Akhenaten used to be a real convert to the worship of Aten, the only author God, in keeping with the Pharoah's personal testimony of a theophany, a divine come upon that introduced his monotheistic non secular odyssey.
The e-book additionally explores the Atenist religion's attainable courting to Israel's faith, supplying an in depth comparability of the hymn to the Aten to Psalm 104, which has been pointed out by way of students as inspired via the Egyptian hymn.
Through a cautious interpreting of key texts, works of art, and archaeological stories, Hoffmeier offers compelling new insights on a faith that predated Moses and Hebrew monotheism, the influence of Atenism on Egyptian faith and politics, and the aftermath of Akhenaten's reign.
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Extra info for Akhenaten and the Origins of Monotheism
E. S. Edwards, C. J. Gadd, & N. G. L. Hammond; Cambridge: The University Press, 1971), 180. 130 Nicholas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt (Oxford: Blackwells, 1992), 124. 131 M. Verner, “Discovery of an Obelisk at Abusir,” Revue d’Egyptologie 28 (1976): 111–118; Verner, Abusir, 83–85. 17 Reconstruction of Sun Temple of Niuserre (Abu Ghurab). Adapted from W. Stevenson Smith, The Art and Architecture of Ancient Egypt (Baltimore, MD: Penguin, 1958), 74. 132 Unfortunately, only the scant remains of two have been identified, those of Userkaf (just north of the Abusir pyramids) and Niuserre at Abu Ghurab, slightly north of Abusir.
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Both symbols are shown on the different depictions of Horus in the Djoser panels introduced above. 14). It appears that during Dynasties 1 though 4, the practice of illustrating winged deities over the king in action was not consistently included, and examples with the sun-disc are unknown. Beginning in the 5th Dynasty, the sun-disc starts to appear with some regularity in reliefs showing the king in action. A block discovered by J. E. 15). On the left, Nekhbet holds a šnw, while in her mirror image on the right side, she holds an ʽnḫ-sign.
Akhenaten and the Origins of Monotheism by James K. Hoffmeier