By Iain McCalman, Jon Mee, Gillian Russell, Clara Tuite, Kate Fullagar, Patsy Hardy
For the 1st time, this cutting edge reference ebook surveys the Romantic Age via all elements of British tradition, instead of in literary or inventive phrases on my own. This multi-disciplinary procedure treats Romanticism either in aesthetic terms--its which means for portray, track, layout, structure, and literature--and as a old epoch of "revolutionary" adjustments which ushered in glossy democratic and industrialized society.
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Extra resources for An Oxford Companion to The Romantic Age: British Culture 1776-1832
He blamed war on monarchical governments encouraged by equally self-interested, parasitical aristocracies who were concerned only for power and reputation. On the other hand, claimed Paine, a democratic future would also be a warless future. Only establish representative governments and the real interests of populations would be asserted against the unnecessary waste and misery of war. However, although anti-war argument was strongly advanced on occasions, it had little effect on British policy and public attitudes, which were profoundly shaped by the long struggle with powerful France from 1689, sometimes called the ‘Second Hundred Years War’.
At their peak strength the armed forces comprised over three-quarters of a million men, nearly half of whom were locally trained civilian *volunteers but who offered service in any part of the country in the event of invasion. However, civilian participation in national defence went far beyond the volunteers: rural workers were enrolled to assist the army and to ‘drive’ districts by removing or destroying anything of use to the enemy; women formed ‘committees of clothing’ to provide for the troops, or featured in patriotic ceremonies to underline the point that the whole of society was under threat; patriotic subscriptions, which were numerous, organized down to the parish level, and solicitous for the pennies of the poor, were made equally symbolic of ‘patriotic union’.
Detail from Contrasted Opinions of Paine’s Pamphlet (1791), attributed to F. G. Byron, an amateur painter and distant cousin of the poet. The ﬁgures of Burke on the left and Fox on the right reﬂect the ‘infernal nature’ of the debate over Thomas Paine’s Rights of Man which swept through the country in the 1790s. One effect, then, of the revolution controversy and the war with France was the further extension, well beyond the radical movements generated by opposition to the American war, of a popular political culture conversant with a national political agenda.
An Oxford Companion to The Romantic Age: British Culture 1776-1832 by Iain McCalman, Jon Mee, Gillian Russell, Clara Tuite, Kate Fullagar, Patsy Hardy